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Glossary G - Glossary - Reference Area. - Your Model Railway Club
 Posted: Sat Dec 15th, 2007 03:41 pm
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Gantry Signal : A lightweight bridge structure crossing several tracks carrying many signal posts or colour light heads.
Gauge : The distance between the two running rails on a single piece of track. In 4mm 00 that is 16.5mm.
Gouache : A watercolour executed with opaque watercolours mixed with gum.
Grade : The vertical rise or fall of a track per 100 units of distance, expressed as a percentage. A 2" rise in 100" is a 2 percent grade.
Gradient Post : A railway lineside-post on which arms are secured, which have marked on them the gradient of the track. The arms are inclined to indicate a rise or a fall. The gradient is usually expressed as "1 in x" where "x" is the number of units along that must be traveled to rise or fall 1 unit.
Great Eastern Railway : Formed in 1862 by the merger of the Eastern Counties with four smaller railways, it owned 1050 miles of route covering the whole of East Anglia. It also ran over a joint line with the Great Northern extending as far as the South Yorkshire coal fields around Doncaster, thus provided a valuable route for coal traffic from South Yorkshire to East Anglia. Another important adjunct was the Royal Mail steamship service to the continent, via Harwich. The Great Eastern was also famed for the intensity and immense carrying capacity of its London suburban service, its Liverpool Street terminus being one of the busiest of London stations. The Great Eastern became part of the London North Eastern Railway at the 1923 grouping.
Great North Of Scotland Railway : A relatively small railway despite the grand sounding name, it was incorporated in 1846, to construct a line from Aberdeen to Inverness. Progress during the early days was slow, the advance to Inverness being blocked by rival projects; and eventually the G.N.S.R. got no further north-west than Elgin. It served all north-eastern districts of Scotland and became part of the London & North Eastern Railway at the 1923 grouping.
Great Northern Railway : This railway became famous for setting the pace for speed from its opening to London in 1850; and in the closing years of the nineteenth century its express trains were the fastest in the world. It formed only the first part of the East Coast Route to Scotland, extending just north of Doncaster, 160 miles from London. However much of its revenue came from mineral traffic. The influence of its engineering practices in locomotives and carriages remained strong into the 1920's. It became part of the London & North Eastern Railway at the 1923 grouping.
Great Western Railway : The Great Western Railway was created by Act of Parliament in 1835. It was originally built to 7ft gauge (Brunel's broad gauge) before being converted to the British standard 4ft 8�in gauge in May 1892. After the conversion it emerged as one of the greatest of pre-grouping lines, with a mileage of 2700 and running powers over a further 600 miles. It also operated a steamship service between Fishguard and Rosslare, and between Weymouth and the Channel Islands. In the 1923 grouping it became one of `the big four' and absorbed several smaller railways.
Ground Foam : Synthetic foam rubber ground up and dyed for use as a texture element in scenery.
Ground Frame : A small lever frame, either in the open or in an unmanned hut, which controls points or signals remote from the main signalbox.
Ground Signal : A loose term for any signal set at ground level, typically shunting signals.
Ground Throw : A low level manual switch stand used to move and lock the switch points to select a route through a turnout.
Grouping : In 1923, 123 separate railway companies were grouped into just four, they being the Great Western Railway (the only one already existing), London Midland & Scottish, London North Eastern Railway and Southern Railway.
Guard : A traveling employee who is in charge and oversees the safe working of a train. Where the guard has no assistants such as a conductor on a passenger train, the guard is also responsible for shunting operations and the comfort of passengers.
Guardrail : An additional rail used on the inside of rails to help wheel flange follow the proper route (as in a turnout or crossing), or to keep derailed cars on the track structure (as on a bridge).
Guard's Van : Another term for a brakevan or full brake.


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