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Glossary L - M - Glossary - Reference Area. - Your Model Railway Club
 Posted: Sat Dec 15th, 2007 03:39 pm
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Ladder Of Points : A series of points leading to sidings, which all diverge from the same approach track.
Level Crossing : A place where a road or railway route crosses another railway route on the same level.
Lever Frame : A framework in which levers are pivoted for controlling the movement of points and signals.
Lichen : A plant used to model trees and bushes.
Light Engine : A locomotive traveling without any attached rolling stock, or with just a brake van in tow.
Light Railway : Railway operating under the terms of a Light Railway Order. Axle loads were restricted to 8 tons which made such railways much cheaper to construct and maintain. This also allowed for a relaxation of certain safety rules which applied to main-line railways, such as lack of fencing provision and simplified signaling systems, in exchange for a very much lower (often 25 mph) speed limit. Many heritage railways operate under such orders, although much of the regulatory framework is now replaced by the recent Railway Safety Case provisions and Transport and Works Act legislation.
Limit Of Shunt : A position on a railway track, usually marked by a notice of such, which represents the limit for any shunting movements.
Livery : The paint scheme for a locomotive or coach.
Loading Bank : A platform in a goods yard for loading and unloading wagons.
Loading Gauge (1) : The space either side and above the track so that locomotives and rolling stock can pass by without coming into contact with anything.
Loading Gauge (2) : A device, often seen at the exit to a goods yard, which consists of a curved bar which overhangs the track. The height of the bar above the rails represents a portion of the loading-gauge so that loaded wagons may be easily checked to ensure they are within the loading gauge.
London & North Western Railway : This railway was formed by the merger of the London and Birmingham, Grand Junction, and Manchester and Birmingham Railways. This was one of the leading railways of Great Britain in the pre-grouping days, known for its revenue and efficiency of operation and management, and in the density of its main line traffic. Its mileage was 1970 and it also worked over 1000 miles on other lines. Its locomotive stock immediately prior to World War I was 3100, all built by the world famous Crewe Works. main lines extended from London to Carisle and from Crewe to Holyhead, while subsidiary lines ran to Liverpool, Manchester, Leeds, and from Crewe, via Shrewsbury to Swansea. It was absorbed into London, Midland & Scottish railway at the 1923 grouping.
London & South Western Railway : This railway originated in 1834 as the London and Southampton and was renamed as the London & South Western Railway in 1839. The LSWR became the natural champion for the `narrow' gauge when the case for Brunel's broad gauge was being so vigorously made by the Great Western Railway. The LSWR extended from Southampton and Salisbury, to Bournemouth and Weymouth, and Exeter. By absorbing some western lines it eventually reached Barnstable and Ilfracombe and the Atlantic coast at Bude and Padstow. An important project was the acquisition and development of Southampton Docks. The LSWR's inauguration of electric trains in the London area in 1915 laid the foundation for the great development of electric traction in southern England. The LSWR eventually owned 866 miles of track, but its 750 locomotives worked over 1000 miles of line in total. It was absorbed into the Southern Railway at the 1923 grouping.
London Brighton & South Coast Railway : This railway was formed in 1846 by the merger of the London and Croydon Railway (which opened in 1839), and the London and Brighton Railway. The LBSCR eventually operated along the south coast from Hastings to Portsmouth, with many rural branch lines, and the important cross-Channel packet station at Newhaven. The total mileage reached 487 miles, operated by 540 locomotives, 3100 carriages and 10,000 good wagons. It became part of the Southern Railway at the 1923 grouping.
London Midland & Scottish (LMS) : Formed in January 1923 from a number of smaller companies as a result of the 1921 Railways Act.
London North Eastern Railway (LNER) : Formed in January 1923 from a number of smaller companies as a result of the 1921 Railways Act.
London, Tilbury & Southend Railway : Absorbed into Midland Railway in 1912.
Loop (1) : A line parallel to a running line, which by virtue of crossovers between the two lines, enables one train to pass or overtake another.
Loop (2) : A length of track which turns back and crosses itself at a higher elevation.
Loop Line : A secondary railway route which diverges from a main route, and then joins the main route again at another location.
Loose Coupled : Train which does not have an automatic brake and is dependent solely on the locomotive brake and strength of the guard in the brake van to stop the train. Freight trains without an automatic brake continued to run on BR until 1983.
Lower Quadrant Signal : A semaphore signal in which the signal arm is lowered from the horizontal to give a clear indication.
Low Relief : A term usually applied to buildings close to the back edge of a model railway that have been modelled to a less than full depth. This helps to give the appearance that the layout extends much further than it really does.
Lynton & Barnstaple Railway : This narrow gauge (1ft 11.5in) railway was opened in May 1898. It was absorbed into the Southern Railway in July 1923 and continued to operate until Autumn 1935. Now reopened as a heritage railway.

Main Line : A railway route interconnecting locations of major importance.
Manchester, Sheffield & Lincolnshire Railway : Original name of the Great Central Railway until 1897. (q.v. Great Central Railway)
Maryport & Carlisle Railway : This prosperous local railway, which opened in 1845, had only 40 miles of route. Although it was never more than a connecting railway between West Cumberland and the six great trunk railways with which it connected at Carlisle, it remained independent until the 1923 grouping, when it was absorbed by the London, Midland & Scottish Railway. It made an end-on junction with the London & North-Western Railway at Maryport and also connected with the Caledonian Railway at Brayton, and the Silloth branch of the North British.
Midland Railway : A former standard gauge railway formed in 1844 by the merger of the North Midland, Midland Counties and Birmingham and Derby Junction Railways, it became one of the largest railways in Britain. Its lines eventually extended to Bristol, Bath, Carlisle, London and Manchester, in partnership with other railways its trains worked as far as Aberdeen, Barrow-in- Furness, Bournemouth, Glasgow, Liverpool, Newcastle and Torquay. In 1912 it owned 1497 miles of route and worked a total, including joint routes, of 2443 miles. It also absorbed several other railways, including the Belfast and Northern Counties (Northern Ireland); and the London, Tilbury and Southend. It was absorbed into London, Midland & Scottish railway at the 1923 grouping.
Midland & South Western Junction Railway : Formed by the 1884 merger of the Swindon and Cheltenham Extension and the Swindon, Marlborough and Andover Railways. It was absorbed into the Great Western Railway on 1 July 1923.
Mile Post : A lineside post on which is printed the distance in miles from a datum point.
Mixed Gauge : A railway line with more than two running rails, enabling trains designed for more than one track-gauge to use the line.
Modern Image : A term introduced in the 1960s to describe the then new diesel hauled and electrified trains on British Rail. The object was to distinguish between current practice and the steam hauled system. Over the past few years it has become necessary to distinguish between current practice and 'Historic Modern Image.'
Module : A section of a layout built following a standard pattern or dimensions. Each module can be connected interchangeably with any other module built to the same standards. Ntrak is an organization that has developed standards for N scale modules.
Mono-Rail : A railway system, usually employing elevated track, in which the weight of the moving vehicles is taken on a single rail.
Multiple Unit : This refers to a self powered coach or set of coaches (may also be called motor coaches) that can be operated in multiple, ie. a driver in one unit can control all those so connected. Multiple units can be diesel or electric powered.


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