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Lambourne Goods Shed - Scratchbuilding. - More Practical Help - Your Model Railway Club
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 Posted: Thu Feb 27th, 2014 04:41 am
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BCDR
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Lambourne Goods Shed in 4mm scale


The Prototype - Lambourn Goods Shed. The Lambourne Valley Railway (LVR) ran from rom Newbury to Lambourne and opened for traffic in 1898. The goods shed was constructed from timber and had a corrugated iron roof, and unusually the loading/unloading canopy, which overhung the track, was cut to the shape of the loading gauge. It was a small building, given that most of the goods traffic at Lambourne was racing horses. The goods shed lasted from the LVR, through GWR ownership to BR days, and the line closed to traffic in 1960. The goods shed was painted light stone/dark stone by the GWR, cream and brown by BR, with its last paint job done shortly before the line closed (quite typical, apparently the appearance of the painters in the 1950's and 1960's heralded closure of the line shortly after).


 Building the model. Dimensions were taken from 'Great Western Branch Line Termini' by Paul Karau (Oxford Publishing Co., 1977), which contains the dimensions of the goods shed, conveniently scaled to 4 mm/foot. A foam-board, cardboard and printed sides’ mock-up was constructed to scale in order to identify any potential issues in construction. Styrene sheet and strip was used to construct the shell of the building and the canopies, MEK solvent was used as glue (to minimize out-gassing time), and the sides were finished using styrene sheet clapboard glued to the styrene backing sheets. The planking on the canopies was from strips of styrene cut to size and scribed with an old hacksaw blade to give a wood pattern. They were glued with MEK to a styrene sheet and the loading gauge cut out afterwards. The roofs of the loading/unloading docks have a 5° slope, and the upper sides of the canopies were cut to this angle. The sides and front glued together, and tied in with a sub-roof of styrene sheet. The gutters between the main roof and the loading dock roofs were from styrene U-channel. Corrugated iron plastic sheets (Wills) were cut to size for the roof, and the edges filed at approximately 45° to reduce their thickness. The main roof is removable, and styrene support trusses were glued on the inside to provide rigidity. The roofs of the loading docks were glued to the sub-roof.






















Details.
The floor of the goods shed was 1/32" thickness basswood, scribed to give scale 12" wide planks. I used the point of an old dart for this (very useful things, every toolbox should have a couple). I used the hacksaw blade to give some visible grain to the planks. The floor was glued to the styrene sheet sub-floor using MEK. The door planks were prepared in the same way but using styrene strip, and glued to a sheet of styrene. The bottoms were weathered using the hacksaw blade, and the doors fixed in place with a spot of glue. There is a 4-pane windows at each end of the goods shed, and the window panels were separated by very narrow wood casings, which I did not fancy making using styrene strip. The windows were drawn-up in CorelDraw, printed onto inkjet transparency film in black, and include several cobwebs and spiders on each one! The windows were cut to the width of the window opening and 1 cm longer than the height, and glued in place on the inside of the window frames using a very small amount of plastic cement. The lintels were styrene strip, and have a slight slope made using a needle file. The doors were constructed from styrene strips wood grained with the hacksaw blade, and glued using MEK to a styrene-backing sheet. The rail-side loading platform was constructed from styrene strip and scale wood, then fixed to the body of the building, and the steps were cut from a commercially available strip of steps (life is too short to spend making steps). The gutter collectors were cut from styrene strip and filed to shape. The down-pipes are a scale 4.5" in diameter and were made from styrene rod, bent to shape in hot water and allowed to cool, and were fixed to the sides of the building using 1 mm-sized pieces of styrene U channel and plastic cement. They were painted brown using acrylic paint. The exterior of the goods shed was painted in cream acrylic paint, and the whole building weathered using a selection of brown, red, rust, and grey weathering powders. A collection of boxes, barrels and sacks populate the loading dock and interior (from Heljan I think), and these were weathered using weathering liquids. The roof is weathered to give an aged rusty finish (apparently the painters left roofs alone, different Union).


Styrene sheet apparently has a grain, and will warp with time as it out-gasses residual solvent. I used MEK rather than liquid glue to minimize out-gassing time. Provision was made during construction for joists below the sub-floor and a substantial joist over the doors to keep the building square. This also functions as the support for the light circuit board. The building was glued to a 2 mm thick styrene sheet to allow the building to be sunk into the ground, rather than sit on it. Holes were drilled at regular intervals in the sheet prior to fixing to allow solvent out-gassing. Lighting is by 2 yellow-white LED bulbs each with an appropriate resistor, wired in parallel using a circuit board made from copper clad, with one light at each end of the building to represent low-watt naked bulbs. The circuit board is fixed to a support joist in the middle of the building. The power leads run down one corner on the inside, hidden from view. The doors were left ajar to represent activity in the shed.

The model currently resides on the branch line of the BRCM club layout in Montréal.

Nigel

Notes:

 1. I drew the walls and canopy sides of the goods shed in CorelDraw. This was especially useful in getting the arch of the loading gauge cutout in the loading/unloading bay canopy, and making sure I had a 5° angle for the slope of the roof on the canopies. I printed the sides, etc., at 100%, cut them out, and used them as templates.

 2. Making a foam-board mock-up helped in getting a feel how it was going to look. It also helped identify a logical sequence for the various stages in construction. The printed sides from the CorelDraw file were simply glued to the foam-board with contact adhesive, and hot glue was used to put the foam-board together. I have found that white foam-board and hot glue tend to be a temporary combination, as the board is coated with a chalk-based material to make it white. The glue sticks to the chalk, not the board.

 3. I used a MEK-based solvent (methyl ethyl ketone,) as adhesive, except for fixing the doors and windows in place, where I used liquid plastic cement. One advantage of MEK is that it sets up in 10 minutes, whereas plastic cement requires at least 2 hours and preferably overnight or more if a large surface area is glued. MEK is also ideal for gluing wood to styrene sheet, as the solvent dissolves the surface of the styrene so that it impregnates the wood fibers, essentially forming a weld between the 2 materials. If you use MEK, make sure you have adequate ventilation, preferably to the outside. I have sourced a MEK substitute that I am going to try on my next styrene project.

4. It is essential that ventilation holes (every 2-3 cm) are drilled in one of the pieces of styrene when gluing a large surface area. This is to ensure escape of the solvent when the surface area is large, otherwise it never sets-up, and the trapped solvent makes the styrene soft and flexible, which results in warping.

5. An old fine hacksaw blade run at an angle across styrene or wood gives a realistic and discernable wood-grain effect that just needs highlighting with weathering powders or liquids.

6. The lights took 5 minutes to solder up – 2 yellow-white LEDs, 2 resistors and a strip of single sided copper-clad insulated down the middle. Should work well for both DC and DCC (although expect a shorter life with DCC). There is room for another pair of lights if required.

7. Wear a mask and gloves when using weathering powders. The particles are extremely fine and quite abrasive, and will get into your lungs and onto your clothes. I have a Heath-Robinson affair comprising a bathroom fan, clothes dryer flexible exhaust pipe and a homemade fume hood with a filter that goes to the outside when I use these powders. Information on their composition is hard to come by, and I suspect finely ground appropriate colored minerals are used in their preparation.
 



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 Posted: Thu Feb 27th, 2014 10:45 am
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Gary
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G'day Nigel,

That is a very nice shed. The weathering is superb, especially the rusting corrugated iron roof, spot on ! :thumbs 

Is the clapboard Evergreen Styrene ? I like/prefer to work with styrene as it is a great modelling medium and you can get results quickly.

Well done.

Cheers, Gary.



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 Posted: Thu Feb 27th, 2014 06:23 pm
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BCDR
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Hi Gary,

Thanks for the comments. Yes, Evergreen styrene clapboard. Slightly undersize but not that noticeable. I'm moving (slowly) towards black styrene, which is much more stable, but available only in sheets. Plus MEK (or equivalent) to weld the joints.

The engine shed at Fairford is currently being built with styrene, lot of joints, and it's still out-gassing after 6 months. I may move to one in wood using North Eastern Scale Lumber, as they produce siding sheets in various sizes.

Cheers,

Nigel



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 Posted: Thu Feb 27th, 2014 07:46 pm
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60019Bittern
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A really nice building Nigel. Perhaps I can get a small shed on Trevennan after all. I have the plans in the Karau book.



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 Posted: Thu Feb 27th, 2014 09:27 pm
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pnwood
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Very nice Nigel :thumbs and a great description to boot. Thanks for taking the time and trouble.

I live a few miles from Lambourn and have often thought about modelling the branch as its history is very well known and documented.




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 Posted: Thu Feb 27th, 2014 10:02 pm
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col.stephens
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Excellent job Nigel. :thumbs 

'Out-gassing?'  That's a new term to me.  What , exactly, does it mean and how do you estimate how long the building requires, as I note you have one which is still 'out-gassing' after six months?

Terry

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 Posted: Thu Feb 27th, 2014 11:39 pm
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BCDR
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Hi Terry,

Out-gassing is a) the escape from the styrene sheet of its precursor monomer, styrene (ethylbenzene) or b) solvents used in "plastic" glue that dissolve in the styrene sheet and slowly escape. MEK (butanone) evaporates very rapidly and little dissolves in the styrene. Think "new car smell". Any styrene sheet model that has a lot of joins or flat surfaces joined to each other will take up a lot of solvent that will slowly escape over a period of weeks or even months. The shed walls are 36" long, and I am using a sandwich construction (inner/outer walls), and even with escape holes some solvent is still escaping. I'm always tempted to use CAA, but even the slow setting types are very unforgiving if some wiggling is required.

I've also stopped using grey car primer for this very reason - the solvent in the can is absorbed by the styrene sheet. I can still smell it several weeks after spraying. Testors plastic primer on the other hand has no detectable smell after 24-48 hours, and with the bonus that small detail is preserved.

Hope this helps explain the term.

Nigel



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 Posted: Thu Feb 27th, 2014 11:52 pm
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col.stephens
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Thank you Nigel, very informative.

Terry

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 Posted: Fri Feb 28th, 2014 12:09 am
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MaxSouthOz
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That's why I stopped using styrene on anything but very small builds.

Somewhere I have some photos of a G scale loco I built, which twisted itself out of shape after about three months.

Also MEK is highly toxic.  I have a friend who is waiting for a lungs transplant after using MEK in the fibreglass boat building industry.

I've found that I can glue it using CA, if I prime it with Loctite 770, which is a polyolefin wash.

The only downside to that strategy is that it sets up instantly - you have to line the joint up perfectly; and very quickly.  :lol:



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 Posted: Fri Feb 28th, 2014 01:48 am
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Hi Nigel,

Out of curiousity, I have noticed that my old styrene sheet and clapboard has become 'yellowy' in colour. Is this a by-product of out-gassing, or is out-gassing only present with solvents ?

Cheers, Gary.



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 Posted: Fri Feb 28th, 2014 05:11 am
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BCDR
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Hi Max,

Really good point. MEK is not nice material, and in fact is being supplanted by a "MEK Substitute". Yet to find out what that is, must be an MSDS somewhere. I am inquiring.

I use solvents (and any chemicals for that matter) with great care, having spent most of my working life in their close proximity. I have a choice of a down-draught work table (designed for sanding) or a portable work table with a horizontal exhaust, both  connected to a fire-proof fan that vents to the outside. I use the same for painting with solvents (plus a mask) or when I am soldering. And protective eye cover as well.

The worst I have encountered was the flux for soldering MAZAC (aluminum solder). It produces boron and hydrofluoric acid. I drew the line at that one.

I have been struck over the past few years that as a hobby model trains involves some pretty nasty chemicals (organic and inorganic). Bottom line - always ask if in doubt. If the ingredients are not listed then don't use it.

I'll try your tip for CAA, sounds interesting. Although the very fluid type gets in between pieces if applied correctly. Just needs the right clamps.

Nigel



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 Posted: Fri Feb 28th, 2014 05:15 am
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Hi Gary,

Regular white styrene sheet is UV sensitive (and oxygen sensitive), probably why it goes yellow (and brittle). Black styrene is a UV resistant product and much more stable.

Nigel



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 Posted: Fri Feb 28th, 2014 02:48 pm
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BCDR wrote: Hi Max,

Really good point. MEK is not nice material, and in fact is being supplanted by a "MEK Substitute". Yet to find out what that is, must be an MSDS somewhere. I am inquiring.

I have been struck over the past few years that as a hobby model trains involves some pretty nasty chemicals (organic and inorganic). Bottom line - always ask if in doubt. If the ingredients are not listed then don't use it.



...I knew there had to be a good reason for working in card and paper! Mind you, some of the P.V.A.can be a mite difficult to wash out of a woolly pully...

Seriously, a very nice model, Nigel, and an interesting 'HowIdidditt'.

Doug



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MaxSouthOz wrote: That's why I stopped using styrene on anything but very small builds.

Somewhere I have some photos of a G scale loco I built, which twisted itself out of shape after about three months.


I do remember that model, Max, we followed the build closely and were amazed at your magnanimity when you realised it was not to be....

Who was it did the G scale articulated model, Shelagh's interest in that was the closest I got to a garden railway...?

Doug



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 Posted: Fri Feb 28th, 2014 04:10 pm
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We all have our crosses, Doug.

Mine's my magnanimity.  :lol:



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 Posted: Fri Feb 28th, 2014 05:28 pm
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Hi Doug,

I like PVA as well (not the one found in school supplies though), although I don't work a lot in card and paper. Having said that I found some real wood veneer, probably 1/64" thick, with a thin card backing in a local arts and crafts shop (The Paper Store). 8" x 11" sheet for around $2.50 and it cuts nicely into strips and glues down well with PVA. I'm investigating that as an alternate source of clapboard for Fairford engine Shed, as well as planking for the body of an 1890's GWR horse van.

The last time I looked at the sides of the shed they were in fact warping a bit, so they may in fact have been a learning experience. I'll see what it looks like next week. I concur with Max re styrene and small structures. Styrene sheet apparently has a 'grain', no way to tell which way it's going to warp over time after being exposed to solvent. I'm leaning more towards a dimensional basswood timber frame with glued joints (CAA for speed) and wood clapboard for the sides with a 1/64" beech veneer backing suitably braced for stability.

Nigel



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 Posted: Fri Feb 28th, 2014 11:20 pm
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I can remember in the early 1970's watching George Slater of Slater's Plastikard fame, at the Model Railway Club's exhibition at Central Hall, Westminster.  He was demonstrating joining styrene sheet (Platikard) with liquid solvent (Mek-Pak), a process previously unknown in the model railway field.  In spite of the warnings about not smoking whilst using Mek-Pak as the vapour breathed through the cigarette creates a deadly gas (cyanide?), he was happily chain smoking throughout the whole process!   Warning: Don't try this at home!

Terry

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 Posted: Fri Feb 28th, 2014 11:33 pm
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I remember Slaters at Matlock Bath in the late 70's. They had a fantastic O gauge layout of Millers Dale. I was building in O gauge then and used to get offcuts of plasticard from him cheap and also some damaged sprues from his wagon kit underframes. From 4 sprues you could make up a complete Midland wagon underframe. He used to charge me about £2 for a carrier bag full. I often wondered where the layout ended up.



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